A small historical reference
Geography: Cardiff the capital city of Wales is officially known as the City and County of Cardiff. It is the United Kingdom's eleventh-largest city, the main commercial centre of Wales, and the base for the Senedd (Welsh Parliament), most national cultural institutions and most of the Welsh media. In 2011 it ranked sixth in the world in a National Geographic magazine list of alternative tourist destinations. Cardiff is county town of the historic county of Glamorgan and in 1974–1996 of South Glamorgan. It belongs to the Eurocities network of the largest European cities. A small town until the early 19th century, its prominence as a port for coal when mining began in the region helped its expansion. In 1905 it was ranked as a city and in 1955 proclaimed capital of Wales. Cardiff Built-up Area covers a larger area outside the county boundary, including the towns of Dinas Powys and Penarth.
Marked development resumed in the 1980s. A new waterfront area at Cardiff Bay contains the Senedd building (the Welsh Parliament) and the Wales Millennium Centre arts complex. Work continues at Cardiff Bay and in the centre, on projects such as Cardiff International Sports Village, BBC drama village, and a new business district. Sporting venues include the Principality Stadium – the national stadium and home of the Wales national rugby union team – Sophia Gardens for Glamorgan County Cricket Club), Cardiff City Stadium for Cardiff City F.C. and the Wales football team), Cardiff International Sports Stadium, home of Cardiff Amateur Athletic Club), Cardiff Arms Park for Cardiff Blues and Cardiff RFC rugby union teams, and Ice Arena Wales for Cardiff Devils ice hockey team.
Date of foundation: In 1081 William I, King of England, began work on the castle keep within the walls of the old Roman fort. Cardiff Castle has been at the heart of the city ever since.